Voir le whisky et le whiskey

Il existe deux écoles de Whisky, l’une aussi valable et authentique que l’autre: celle de l’Irlandais et celle de l’Écossais, toutes deux ayant leurs propres supporters. Mon cœur balance entre les deux, entre le velouté d’un grand malt écossais, et la race d’un whiskey irlandais, plus “sauvage”. De quoi exciter largement vos papilles en tout cas.

LE SCOTCH WHISKY

C’est en Écosse, invité un jour par le charmant David Bremner (Glenfiddich) que je m’étais (très rapidement) initié au golf. Une bonne occasion de s’oxygéner après la tournée des pubs que vous ne manquerez sûrement pas de suivre. Un grand malt peut procurer des sensations extraordinaires, et se savoure délicatement, à l’apéritif ou en digestif (essayez). Ne le confondez pas avec le simple Whisky : pas de glace, juste un peu d’eau fraîche si vous y tenez. Il faut donc distinguer les deux familles de scotch whiskies : celui qui est à base d’orge maltée (germée et séchée), et le whisky de grain à base d’orge, d’orge maltée et de maïs. Les procédés de distillation sont également différents, d’un côté l’alambic à feu nu (Pot Still), de l’autre l’alambic breveté en 1830 par Aeneas Coffey et appelé pour cette raison Paten Still ou Coffey Still.

Le whisky de grain

Produit par le procédé alambic Coffey, par une distillation continue (voir aussi Le whisky de malt), dans laquelle le brassage se fait avec une certaine proportion d’orge maltée, mélangée à d’autres céréales non maltées. Ensuite, les céréales non maltées sont cuites à la vapeur sous pression dans un convertisseur pendant environ trois heures et demie. Pendant cette opération, le mélange d’eau et de grain est agité à l’intérieur de cet appareil. Les cellules d’amidon éclatent dans le grain et lorsque le liquide est transvasé dans la cuve de brassage avec l’orge maltée, la diastase du malt convertit l’amidon en sucre. Le liquide ainsi obtenu (wort) est recueilli à une densité plus basse que dans le procédé pot-still.

Après distillation, la nouvelle eau-de-vie, qu’elle soit obtenue par l’alambic Coffey ou par procédé pot-still, doit subir un vieillissement. Elle est transvasée dans des fûts de chêne dont la perméabilité permet le passage de l’air et une certaine évaporation. Elle se débarrasse ainsi, avec le temps, de constituants indésirables et devient alors un whisky moelleux. Alors que la loi exige un vieillissement de trois ans avant que lui soit accordé son nom de whisky, la plupart des scotch whiskies subissent un vieillissement de 5 à 6 ans. Certains scotch whiskies vieillissent plus longtemps en fûts, souvent pendant 15 ans et même plus. Après vieillissement, les différents whiskies sont assemblés. L’assemblage est alors ramené au degré désiré par l’addition d’eau douce. A ce stade, le whisky présente une couleur très pâle. Une faible quantité d’une préparation caramélisée est alors ajoutée pour lui donner la teinte voulue. Il est ensuite soigneusement filtré.

Le whisky de malt

C’est l’aristocrate par excellence, produit par le procédé alambic à feu nu, et sa production se divise en quatre étapes :

Le maltage
D’abord tamisée pour éliminer tout corps étranger, l’orge est ensuite immergée pendant deux à trois jours dans des réservoirs d’eau. Elle est ensuite étendue sur l’aire de maltage où elle germe en 8 à 12 jours, en fonction notamment de la saison et de la qualité de l’orge utilisée. Pendant la germination, l’orge produit un enzyme qui rend l’amidon soluble et prépare ainsi sa transformatin en sucre. A intervalles réguliers, l’orge doit être retournée pour surveiller la température et le développement de la germination. Au moment opportun, la germination sera arrêtée par séchage au four.

Le brassage
Séché, le malt est ensuite broyé puis mélangé à de l’eau chaude dans une cuve de brassage. L’amidon soluble se transforme en sucre. Un liquide doux, le moût, est alors séparé des constituants solides qui serviront de nourriture au bétail.

La fermentation
Après refroidissement, le moût est transféré dans de grandes cuves de fermentation. De la levure vivante attaque le sucre dans le moût et le convertit en alcool brut. La fermentation dure environ 48 heures et produit un liquide appelé wash qui contient de l’alcool de faible degré, quelques matières non fermentescibles et certains sous-produits.

La distillation
Le whisky de malt est distillé deux fois dans des alambics de cuivre (voir plus loin). Le wash est chauffé jusqu’à évaporation, puis les vapeurs sont condensées, généralement dans un serpentin refroidi par eau. Cette première distillation a produit des low-wines, et élimine les résidus de levure et les matières non fermentescibles. Les low-wines sont soumis alors à une nouvelle distillation afin de l’ajouter aux low-wines en attente, car il n’a ni la qualité ni la force requise. Il faut noter que ce processus traditionnel par Pot Still est donc intermittent puisque l’alambic doit être rechargé après chaque distillation.

Si la plupart des distilleries ont tendance à entrouvrir plus facilement leurs portes aujourd’hui, il n’en a pas toujours été de même. Pourtant, l’authenticité des grands whiskies ne risque pas d’être exportée. Grands maîtres de l’espionnage industriel et de la récupération, certains hommes japonais se sont intéressés aux seigneurs du malt, allant jusqu’à acheter des distilleries entières pour les transplanter avec leurs techniciens au Japon, ainsi que les malts traités en Ecosse.

Mal leur en prit, le résultat fut désastreux. Que leur manquait-il ? Simplement l’eau, cette eau incroyablement pure de la vallée de la Spey que l’on ne trouve nulle part ailleurs, cette eau qu’un Japon pollué ne pourrait jamais fournir.

L’autre élément d’importance reste le climat d’Écosse, envahi de cette humidité propre qui favorise si bien les échanges entre l’air et le whisky, lors de sa fermentation. L’eau est d’ailleurs si vitale que les nouvelles distilleries de malt ont eu du mal à s’implanter dans la vallée de la Spey, car les meilleures sources étaient déjà exploitées. La maison Caperdonich tire même son eau d’un puits gardé secret durant des siècles. Partout l’eau est d’une qualité exceptionnelle. Certaines rivières comme la Livet possèdent une eau si douce et si pure que des distilleries l’utilisent en complément de leurs propres sources.

Un autre facteur joue un rôle primordial dans la qualité des whiskies, et leur apporte une originalité à nulle autre semblable : la tourbe. Durant son périple, l’eau s’y imprègne des différents minéraux. Mais c’est surtout lors de la fumigation des malts que la tourbe intervient de manière prépondérante. C’est elle qui sera utilisée pour leur séchage et leur communiquera ce peaty taste, cette saveur de tourbe si présente dans le scotch de qualité, souvent surprenante pour les non-initiés. Les whiskies des îles Islay sont dotés au plus haut point de cette saveur.

Pourtant, le maltage de l’orge a, sauf exceptions, perdu son caractère traditionnel. La plupart des distilleries s’approvisionnent aujourd’hui dans des centres spécialisés. Certaines utilisent un procédé plus rapide, les Salladin Boxes , qui accèlèrent le processus de germination et évitent le retournement à la pelle des différentes couches d’orge.

Toujours dans la vallée de la Spey, pourtant riche en distilleries, Balvenie est encore l’une des rares à malter traditionnellement, dans de vastes greniers où l’orge est retournée méthodiquement, en trouvant régulièrement l’air et la chaleur dont elle a besoin. Le processus de germination est alors parfait.

La double distillation est de rigueur en Écosse comme à Cognac. L’alcool sort quasiment blanc des alambics et prendra sa couleur dans les fûts de chêne. Pour s’exprimer totalement, un whisky de malt a besoin d’une douzaine d’années de vieillissement s’il est léger (type Glenfiddich), et d’une quinzaine s’il est plus corpulent (type Macallan). Malheureusement, comme pour d’autres alcools bien français, le coût de ces opérations de stockage fait souvent singulièrement raccourcir le temps de vieillissement, et la plupart des maisons commercialisent des whiskies de cinq ans d’âge.

Mes coups de cœur écossais

Macallan
Un corps splendide, à la fois moelleux et plein de feu, ample et délicat, subtil et franc de goût. Sa fabrication est très traditionnelle, avec, notamment, l’utilisation de petits alambics de 840 gallons à chauffe directe, sans emploi de gaz, au cœur de la vallée de la Spey à Craigellachie, dans le Morayshire.

Glenforres
Distillé dans les Highlands à la distillerie d’Edradour . De 12 ans d’âge minimum, un malt qui a beaucoup de corps, mais léger, très distinctif par son bouquet développé, d’une grande finesse.

Glen Grant
Dans la vallée des Highlands où coule encore aujourd’hui l’une des eaux les plus pures d’Europe. La distillerie Glen Grant s’est implantée entre Aberdeen et Inverness au-delà des Monts Grampian à côté du village de Rothes. Au fronton du bâtiment, l’effigie des frères Grant comme sur les bouteilles. Un whisky qui a su rester pur : il n’est mélangé à aucun autre produit d’une autre distillerie. Le Glen Grant a donc sa saveur et son arôme particuliers.

Ardbeg
C’est un whisky d’Islay, île originale située à l’ouest de Glasgow. Il est très particulier, puissant, et devrait ravir les vrais amateurs, caractère très marqué, dû au fumage des malts par leur propre tourbe, encore accentué sur le dix-sept ans d’âge de Gordon and Mac Phail, redégusté récemment.

Auchentoshan
Whisky de la région de Glasgow. Il est juste situé à la limite des Highlands et appartient aux Lowlands. La triple distillation, qu’il est seul à subir avec Springbank, apporte une délicatesse et une subtilité complémentaires. Fin, léger et pourtant très corsé, c’est un grand malt très typé, qui emplit parfaitement la bouche.

Balbair
Au nord d’Inverness, en direction de Wick. Whisky produit à Edderton près de Tain, dans le Rosshire. Son moelleux est magnifique, onctueux. C’est une caresse sur “des langues de feu”. La fabrication est des plus traditionnelles, avec maltage ancestral et alambic très réduit.

Glenmorangie
Produit près de Balbair à Tain. De l’égance, de la distinction, un fruité d’une délicatesse exceptionnelle. La distillerie se trouve à Muir of Ord, dans le Rosshire.

Springbank
Dans la presqu’île de Cambeltoum, au sud-ouest de Glasgow, c’est la seule distillerie (avec Glenfiddich) à embouteiller sur place, garantie d’authenticité. C’est la seule aussi, avec Auchentoshan, à pratiquer la triple distillation, et l’une des rares à malter encore de façon traditionnelle. Tout cela donne un whisky complet et de grande classe.

Glenlivet
Le vétéran des whiskies de malt. Un grand classique, riche en arôme, persistant en bouche, bien typé.

IRLANDE : L’AUTRE WHISKY

Le whiskey de l’Irlande, l’Irish, a son histoire, bien mouvementée, qui contraste avec ce pays de verdure et de calme. A l’origine de la civilisation irlandaise, on trouve l’influence des Celtes, avec leurs coutumes, leur société, leur art, et surtout leur langue dont subsistent aujourd’hui encore des termes dans la langue dérivée irlandaise : le gaélique.

L’Irlande reste celte, elle devient catholique, et ces deux racines sont si ancrées qu’aucune autre influence étrangère n’a gain de cause. Avec la chrétienté du Moyen Age s’installent des monastères, comme dans toute l’Europe, et, avec les moines, l’art de distiller. Pour un pays où la vigne ne pousse pas, où les fruits sont rares, la distillation de purée de grains fermentée donne une boisson alcoolisée tonifiante et vivifiante très appréciée : le uisce beatha (en gaélique), que l’on pourrait traduire en aqua vitae ou tout simplement eau-de-vie…

De Uisce à whiskey, il n’y a qu’un pas, ce mot whiskey ou whisky ne serait que la déformation du gaélique en anglais par les soldats du roi Henry II d’Angleterre, venus envahir l’Irlande au XIIe siècle. L’Histoire prouve d’ailleurs que les Anglais appréciaient le whiskey d’Irlande plus que le whisky d’Écosse : entre l’Irish et le Scotch, les batailles se succédèrent, les marchands anglais peu scrupuleux n’hésitant pas à faire transiter leur whisky écossais par l’Irlande afin de le baptiser Irish et ainsi le vendre à meilleur compte.

Il est vrai que le whiskey de l’Irlande avait bonne réputation pour sa finesse et son velouté. Un peu d’orge, de l’eau, quelques bassines, une lessiveuse ou une grande bouilloire, c’est tout ce qu’il fallait au paysan irlandais pour faire son whiskey, et ce breuvage plus ou moins réussi, souvent âpre et rude, chaque ferme irlandaise en fabriquait, jusqu’à l’occupation de l’Irlande par les colons anglais. Car l’Irlande n’a pas échappé (comme l’Écosse) à la domination anglaise…

Les officiers de la couronne britannique imposèrent sur les whiskeys une taxe (un droit d’accise), ne voulant pas en Irlande comme en Écosse se priver de revenus très importants. Face à cette contrainte des envahisseurs, les Irlandais résistèrent avec cette ténacité qui leur est propre : on distingua le whiskey officiel, que l’on appelait “Partiament Whiskey”, déclaré, pour lequel on payait des droits, du whiskey clandestin (le Poteen whiskey).

A la fin du XVIIIe siècle, les Anglais durent reconnaître, un siècle quand même après l’établissement de la taxe, que la fraude était omniprésente. Mais, dès le début et tout au cours du XIXe, on assista à un développement important de la demande en Irish et les distilleries se regroupèrent en d’importants conglomérats : le whiskey de l’Irlande connut son âge d’or.

Le début du XXe siècle fut marqué par la lutte des Irlandais pour l’indépendance de leur pays. Les troubles qui précédèrent le partage de l’Irlande imposé par l’Angleterre (1920), la Prohibition aux Etats-Unis, puis la Dernière Guerre, furent autant de facteurs d’affaiblissement de l’économie irlandaise et tout particulièrement des grandes maisons de whiskey.

La fabrication du whiskey irlandais nécessite comme matières premières de l’orge et l’eau pure, et l’Irlande possède l’une comme l’autre, en qualité aussi bien qu’en quantité.

On procède alors au maltage de l’orge, une opération qui consiste à provoquer la germination. Quatrre jours plus tard, on l’arrête par séchage au four. L’orge et l’orge maltée sont alors brassées, on broie le grain en poudre puis on ajoute de l’eau : une enzyme de l’orge maltée (la diastase) permet la conversion de l’amidon de l’orge non maltée en sucre fermentescible. On laisse pendant dix heures ce mélange se faire pour en tirer un liquide sucré, le moût, puis on ajoute des levures pour provoquer la fermentation qui dure 60 heures. On obtient ainsi un liquide brun de 8° environ que l’on pourrait appeler “vin d’orge” s’il n’était pas aussi déplaisant à boire en l’état. Il est filtré puis pompé immédiatement dans un alambic afin d’être distillé. Cette distillation permet la séparation de l’alcool, et, en Irlande, on utilise deux types d’appareils : des alambics à recharge et des alambics à coulée continue. Il existe donc une originalité de ces deux modes de séparation, combinaison qui permet de créer dès la distillation des whiskeys différents. Traditionnellement, l’Irish Whiskey est distillé et mis en vieillissement pendant une durée de trois ans minimum dans des fûts de chêne.

Retenez surtout deux particularités propres à cet Irish, par rapport au Scotch : outre les modes de distillation totalement différents, le Scotch a cet arôme caractéristique du fumet qui lui est conféré par le séchage du malt en présence de fumée de tourbe, tandis que le malt de l’Irish est séché au charbon, sans tourbe. L’Irish est donc très différent au nez et en bouche par rapport à son cousin écossais le Scotch. Moins aromatisé, plus fin, plus élégant, c’est un whiskey qui mérite sa place, un must pour amateurs.

Et puis, l’Irish Whiskey, comme la bière irlandaise, est un élément essentiel dans les habitudes de consommation : on se retrouve, le soir venu, dans les pubs irlandais, on se rencontre, on discute, on boit, on porte des toasts… Slainte… On chante aussi des vieilles chansons qui ressemblent étrangement au style folk song des États-Unis… On se sent bien en Irlande, on devient vite amoureux du pays, de son accueil, de ces gens authentiques et chaleureux, et on risque de devenir aussi un passionné de l’Irish whiskey.

Mes coups de cœur irlandais

Jameson 1780
Un excellent Irish, fin et distingué, à déguster en ajoutant un peu d’eau plate.

Old Bushmills
Un whiskey malté avec un puissant caractère, à boire pur.

Black Bush
Un Irish très typé, très aromatisé, meilleur allongé d’un peu d’eau.

Bushmills Malt
Un pur malt irlandais, fin et racé, pour passionnés.

Paddy
Un Irish léger mais sec avec une pointe d’arôme malté, très apprécié des Irlandais.

John Power
Un whiskey soutenu et franc, avec un arrière-goût caractéristique d’orge maltée. Excellent mélangé avec moitié d’eau plate.

Tullamore Dew
Un whiskey fin délicat et harmonieux (qui se prononce Tout l’amour), adoré de tous, dont je suis. Excellent avec un peu d’eau plate.

18 réflexions au sujet de « Voir le whisky et le whiskey »

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